Tag Archive: Communism


“Politicians Be Damned – Statesmen Are Needed!”
IM000268

By
Gregory V. Boulware

‘What Defines a Republican, a Democrat, a Politician, or a Statesman?’

What is a ‘Republic’ as opposed to a ‘Democracy?’

How many of us have actually met or spoken to a “Black Republican?” Would you know of one who actually represents you and your community? What about the Asians, Latinos, Native Born Indians, and other non-white groups? How about Black Tea Party Members?

Would you believe it if I told you that Dr. Martin Luther King, Frederick Douglas, or George Washington Carver were staunch Republican Members and Supporters of the party?

Maybe you might think that I’m completely ‘crazy’ or ‘off-my-rocker’ to say such a thing. But, I’m here to tell ya – oh yes, it’s true!
However, they also stood up and fought for us – they tried to educate our people on the country / world economics, political clout, held and maintained a strong-ness in our (your) beliefs.

One such portal to education, economical strength building, and political clout was the now gone, ‘Philadelphia Berean Institute!’

“The Jewel In Our Community” would have/has turned One Hundred and Sixteen Years Old. It was founded in 1899 on the original site of 1901 Girard Avenue, in the heart of North Philadelphia. The Rev. Matthew W. Anderson, one of the first Black Graduates of Princeton University developed a school for the economically disenfranchised masses of Southern Blacks who migrated to the North in droves without the education, economical savvy or political clout it took to prosper in the predominantly white power structures of the country’s northern cities.

Back then, students were taught and trained in plumbing, carpentry, dressmaking and tailoring professions.

Today (pre-closing), the school teaches accounting, business administration, electronics, paralegal services, data processing, computer science and repair, secretarial science, cosmetology and barbering, among a host of other available educational programs. The college (post 1900) specialized in Career Certification and Associate Degrees. Students who qualified for the courses either had to possess a high school diploma of G.E.D.

The courses have changed (from past to current) while the mission continued. Dr. Spencer, who was ‘Dean’ when I attended, said:
“The main goal is to keep tuition affordable and create a state-of-the-art campus. We hope to expand our campus by 2005 with the addition of a new building, right across from the existing building on this very site.”
That dream never came to pass.

In a 10 year span, Berean Institute had graduated more than two thousand students. That’s an average of about two hundred graduates per year – with the majority being ‘Black Americans.’
The school, barbering and cosmetology, the two main professions where Blacks could always become successful entrepreneurs, were offered; continued to peer into the future by tackling and taking head-on the premise of a national shortage of computer technicians or technology workers. The Government Educational Grant of $2.8 million federal dollars was received by Berean to offset the danger to the economy. Ney-sayers accused the government of allowing foreigners to come into the country for those American Jobs – the open computer industry tech vacancies.
“We got this grant to try to offset that, so companies can’t keep saying, ‘we’ve got to go overseas.’ We have many needy people (and who are needed) right here in North Philly who can be trained to fill those jobs,” said Dr. Norman K. Spencer.

The Berean Institute facility has also played host to a number of community affairs and a meeting place as well as being a place of educational upgrading. The Million Woman March was germinated here in 1997. Additionally, other Philadelphia chapters of alumni groups, Historical Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU’s) have utilized the facility for their activities and affairs.
Where is this significantly needed institution now? What has happened to this sorely missed and needed Black College? Was its demise simply greed and corruption or some politically motivated ingenuity?

In Philadelphia, republicans (media reporting records) are outnumbered nine to one, and African American Republicans are outnumbered by a ratio that’s too ridiculous to bother mentioning.

That doesn’t mean Black Republicans don’t exist. Here in ‘Philly,’ there is a group called ‘The Philadelphia Republicans of Color (the Philly ROC). Believe it or not, some African American candidates do run for political office in this city – as Republicans.
“Philly’s Black Republicans are often scorned by both political constituencies,” said a weekly Philadelphia newspaper. “Whenever the white republicans wanted to post a Black face in opposition of Our Sitting President – ‘Obama’ – they were always lead around like they were dogs, like puppets on a string. They were portrayed as controllable window dressing.”

“The democratic party must be defined by what it stands for,” shouts Brother Al Sharpton. “Too many centrist democrats have moved the party to the right. As demonstrated by the past and recent elections. The base of the democratic party has felt abandoned by the many – so-called minorities, women, progressives, and young people.”
Brother Al was one of nine 2004 presidential candidates who happened to be Black. Another candidate of color was a female. Her name is Sister Carol Moseley Braun. She and Brother Al were some of George Bush Jr.’s harshest critics.
“The Bush Administration has been a disaster – Americans have lost and continue to lose jobs. Many are without healthcare, and the republican president has given massive tax cuts to the richest one percent in our society,” says Braun.
Reparations are likely to be addressed by these two African American Candidates. Carol Moseley Braun states her support for reparations. She says it should not be forty acres and a Lexus, but a program that brings Americans together to resolve the nation’s contradictions between the society’s commitment to equality, opportunity, and how so-called minorities are actually treated.
“Education is the silver bullet; we need to rebuild crumbling schools!”

Brother Al addressed an agenda that was apparently forgotten by the republican lead team – public education. Sharpton proposed a two dollar an hour increase in the country’s minimum wage debacle. He also says America should address the disparities in the criminal justice system, eliminate racial profiling, and to make sure that appointed judges on the bench are not insensitive to women and people of color.
“Too many political figures want to direct public resources to private education via the voucher system. We cannot afford to write off the majority of America’s children. And I would have a foreign policy that recognizes that we, Black People, are part of the global village – whether you want us or not! America should be an international healer not a bully,” says Sharpton.

Carol Moseley Braun’s credentials include a law degree, a term in the US Senate, and was ambassador to New Zealand. She was the only former diplomat in the presidential race that year. Carol’s experience, in addition to the aforementioned, also show that she served as a State Representative and the Cook County Recorder of Deeds – she was the only candidate who proudly served both levels of government; local and state.

Al Sharpton was the only candidate who has never held public office. His contentions are that his leadership skills are far from lacking.

Al’s plan is to connect with the people. The candidate has spent many weeks on the road pushing his agenda. He has gone to college campuses, churches, grass-root communities, and to the streets. He said “That’s where the people are!”

“Do you really think that Black folk would struggle through slavery, carrying bags, talking about ‘we shall overcome’ and all those kinds of things; that a little voter ID issue would have actually stopped us from registering for the vote? Only a fool would think that Black folks wouldn’t go out and do what they need to do when they think their rights have been threatened!” says a Black Philadelphia Republican.

“We (Black Republicans) love President Obama! We, at least I, think it was great that he’s an African American person who has made it to the level of being recognized as being the First Black President.”
Another Black Philadelphia Republican rationalized what Paul Ryan mouthed during an interview while campaigning for vice-president.
“I think it’s cool that we have our first African American Presidential candidate.”
If one can or could believe in that sincerity, ‘Willie Lynch’ would make a great candidate too.

A third Black Republican told of how he caught all kinds of negativity for broadcasting his respect for the then candidate; President Obama!
He said that he had to go off and checkmate just about everybody in the building.
“Did they think that they could actually tell me how to think? We believe in politics and we believe in our platform, but let’s keep in mind that we’re all part of the human race and we’re all Americans, and Obama is our Commander-in-Chief!”

One of the three interviewed Black Republicans thought republicans should do what Malcolm X did. That exercise is to go out into the field and rap to the people. He added, if Malcolm were here today, he’d probably say go out into the field and rap with the people.
“Ya know…we as Republicans have to stop that… We have to speak with the people and not to them or at them. I hear a lot of people in the Tea Party say they don’t understand why (so-called) minorities don’t become republicans. Did anyone question the fact that Martin Luther King was a Republican? No one cares!
Half of em don’t even know about that. I don’t believe they actually care either. Folks are tired of white republicans talking from D. C. and Harrisburg while not even bothering to go to the neighborhoods and speak with the people.
It should be very important that republicans focus on recruiting and speaking with our neighbors and getting the word out. The other thing is the need to show up at the community meetings. They don’t see us in the neighborhoods, we don’t exist there.
And we as African Americans need to understand that we’re dominant in many of the world’s major sporting competitions and the music industry. What is not understood is why we have an open door opportunity in this city to take over a political party – we just sit and cuss and fuss to deaf ears.

The Republican Party needs to understand that the demographic sands are shifting very quickly right under our feet. And it is highly possible this party will cease to exist by 2016.
Republicans need to become more sophisticated. We are no longer working on a local, state, or national platform. We are working now toward a global economy.
The Party has by-passed the Black Community and gone straight to Latino’s, knowing the Hispanic Population has increased drastically and continues to grow.
Republicans feel that Blacks are so indoctrinated with the Democratic Party for so many years, they’re a lost cause and they’d have a better chance with the Spanish population because they are not so ingrained.”

Another spin from Republicans is the worry concerning Blacks in the Democratic Party using a famous named person on the ballot, while a bad incumbent who hasn’t done anything outside or from inside an official political position, hides behind the so-called famous person on the ballot. The premise is that we’re going to go in and vote for everyone on this list because our so-called famous person is on here as well.
These are some of the reasons that we as Black Entrepreneurs have become Republicans. We tell people to stop hitting the one lever; the straight lever, voting for the entire list. We don’t want our people to be duped of hoodwinked either by Democrats of Republicans.
“An excellent opportunity has presented itself for the Republican Party. However, they have not taken advantage of it because we are Black,” said another Philly Party member of color.
“We are not acknowledged as much as we should be – we’re put on the side until needed – and that needs to stop.”

Many Black Philadelphians have never met a Republican in the first place, let alone a Black one. Republicans have traditionally been demonized in many Black households. One of the Black Republicans related his first experience in South Philly’s Wharton Street Center. He painted a vivid picture of his first contact while chairing a community based board at the center.
The Wharton Street Community Center has an historic and proudly rich history relating to Abolition, Quakers, and Slavery – according to the chairman, back in 1982 a lady came up to him and asked if he’d like to make history. She said they wanted to hold a meeting of Black Republicans at the center for the first time. The chairman, then a Democrat, was set aback.
“A Black Republican” I had never seen or heard of a Black Republican!

He itched with the curiosity and enthusiasm of seeing and meeting a one. He did not even ask them for rent money. He just wanted to see if these particular human beings existed. He said that he was surprised at how many actually showed up.
“I was stunned and flabbergasted! I sat in the back of the room because I was a Democrat. The gentlemen who entered the hall were very well dressed, mannerly, and neat. They were not drunkards or ‘Uncle-Tom-ish’ either. They just appeared to be well-to-do regular Black Men preparing for a community Town Hall Meeting.
Then, in walks this tall light-skinned Black Man. He was very well dressed in a bright yellow satin shirt, silk tie of gold, and a beautiful maroon colored semi-pin-striped suit. He was followed by neatly dressed happy faced rotund white guy. They stepped right in front of the group and announced the disbanding of this meeting.” The Chairman continued his story.
“The two men were local Republican Party Officials. They said to everyone present ‘you’re not having a meeting her tonight’ – I was shocked – ‘you all don’t have the proper permission to do so.’ The next thing I knew, the group got up and left the building without comment or complaint.
That’s when I said to myself, they need someone like me in there. That was my first contact with the Republican Party – on the Black side.”
The third Black Philly Republican expressed his first-hand experience.
“We had to go to the state party on three different occasions. It started for me then. It was 2010 when I ran for governor. My position was:
“If you have a complete compliment of other candidates listed on the Republican Website, we, the Black Candidates ought to be listed there as well!” expressed the Philadelphian.
“After the first 2010 episode, I switched from being a Republican to an Independent. The following year, I converted back to Republican because it was where I felt comfortable. Becoming an Independent has proven to be a very lonely experience.
In 2012, I was asked to run for the second Congressional Seat. After I relinquished the run, and agreed with them to do so for the US Senate Race. In reality, I understood that I didn’t stand a chance in hell of winning.
In order to help the Party, the best thing that I could do for the Black Republicans was to run for the seat and raise the profile of the party – even in the face of the United States President.
My campaign allowed a strategic decision to oppose the repeal of the Affordable Care Act. When that was done…all hell broke loose and everybody went ape-shit crazy. All of the Republicans, the Tea Party, etc., were going behind our back, saying that I’ve decided to drop out of the race; they recruited another candidate. I was called “RINO” by the Tea Party. They said that I was un-American, I was anti-American, and pro Obama.

Back in the 1970’s, I was asked to join ’The Junior Police’ by a back-in-the-day politician. He suggested that if we, my ‘Homies’ and me, supported his campaign; would be able to go into the police academy; and when we graduated we could look forward to sitting and working behind a desk until we turn twenty-one.

In Pennsylvania, back then, you weren’t allowed a gun until age twenty-one.

The bastard, after the election, turned right around, and every Black person who helped him by running him around in and throughout the neighborhoods, introducing him, bringing him into the Black Churches and all…screwed us in every way possible! I could not, for the life of me, understand why. I wasn’t particularly politically savvy back then. But I finally did figure it all out and finally got it. Someone was decent enough to ‘Hep’ me to what it was he did. He threw us to the side; under the bus; out onto the street; in the garbage – we had suddenly become a load of shit; taboo, refuse, the discarded shredding. This is the problem I had with the Republican Party!
They wanted to use, and use us again, and again. And once they did that and got what they needed from us, it was to hell with you and your kind – not caring or thinking about tomorrow or the future for that matter.”

The Eldest participant in this discussion stood up and walked over to a nearby window. The glazed look upon his face brought an abrupt, yet insidious disposition when he espoused a bitter memory.
“We all have to remember, up until the 1940’s; African Americans weren’t allowed into a general hospital in any given city, town, or borough in the country. We had to go strictly to a Black only hospital or get delivered by a midwife. If the midwife didn’t keep any treatment, birth, or death records, you didn’t have a record of birth. Fifty percent of Black Senior Citizens living today do not have a real or original certificate of birth. Many simply didn’t know where their birth certificates were. Republicans counted on that when they proposed the ‘Voter ID Act. If you can remember, in 1956, the Hall of Records in Philly caught fire and was burned to the ground. Of course, the fire destroyed a whole bunch of people’s birth records. So how is the Voter ID law supposed to be fair to those people?”

The second of the three interviewed Black Republicans stated if the Republicans had come to us, any of us – and said:
“We want you to help us defeat this Democratic President. The color of his skin doesn’t matter.” He stood up from his chair with a smirking smile upon his face and continued speaking.

“We’d have responded – ‘At this particular time, going against President Obama, a Black Man – I think you’d better think again.’” He continued speaking after re-seating. “What they did was not include us or anybody in their decision making – to not even ask us what we think or thought!
When it came to pass, we…I laughed. I laughed at what they’d done with the Voter ID Law because in knew that Black Folk are primarily moved by emotion. But, when you think you’re going to take something from Black Folk, that’s when we become your worst nightmare. I knew we were going to be a nightmare to Republicans because only a fool would think that Black Folks wouldn’t go out and do what they needed to do when they think their rights and liberties are being threatened – that was surely the dumbest of moves.”

All three interviewees agreed. The second Black Republican Party Member chimed, “That’s one of the reason’s I try not to disrespect the Commander-In-Chief by referring to the ‘Affordable Care Act’ as “Obamacare!” It is not Obama Care! Republicans have told me ‘we’re not voting for you because you don’t stand for the repeal of the Affordable Care Act!’
Well, don’t vote me – idiot!
They are contradicting themselves by chastising Chairman Harris for making a comment about respecting the ‘First African American President of The United States.’ First of all, you need to understand, most of my heroes do not appear on a damn stamp. If you really want to know – in reality, W.E.B. Dubois and Frederick Douglas were the ultimate Republicans!
Now what is a Republican?
If I had to distinguish myself between a Frederick Douglas Republican and a Reagan Republican, one could firmly believe the choice would be a Frederick Douglas Republican!”

My way or the highway?

It’s okay to be a Republican or a Democrat without compromises. But you need to come to the table – the art of legislation is about compromise – not the ability of receiving rewards for contempt and complete stupidity. Will you not exercise your right of choice and vote for the best candidate that you see fit?

We shall see…

PreGraduation Photo 4 2004

What is a Democrat, a Republican, or a Statesman?

Politics:
The art and science of the government of a state – public affairs of public life as they relate to this – the opinions, principles, or policies by which a person orders his participation in such affairs – scheming and maneuvering within a group.

A Politician:
A person engaged in politics and in the techniques of civil government – in a derogatory sense – a person engaged in politics (is) merely for personal gain.

A Republican:
a) A Republic is a form of government in which the head of state is an elected president rather than a monarch; a form of government in which the sovereign power is widely vested in the people either directly or through elected representatives; a state with either of these forms a government; a society whose members are equally engaged in the same activity, the republic or letters. (publicus; public)

b) A Republican is pertaining to, characteristics of or having the nature of a republic; favoring a republic – republican of or belonging to the Republican Party; a person who supports the form of government of a Republic Republican, a member of the Republican Party.

The Republican Party:
One of the two main political parties of the U.S.A. (cf. Democratic Party). It was formed (1854) by anti-slavery groups to oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and attracted many ‘Whigs,’ ‘Free-Soilers’ and those ‘Know-nothings’ who opposed slavery.
It rapidly gained power in the north and held its first National Convention in 1856. Lincoln became the first Republican President in 1861. The Republicans held the presidency from then until 1913, with the exception of the administrations of 1885-89 and 1893-97 of Cleveland.
They were weakened by the secession of the Liberal Republicans 1872 and the ‘Mugwumps’ in 1884.
In the late 19th century the Republican Party favored ‘Protective Tariffs’ and the ‘Gold Standard.’ After the administrations of Theodore Roosevelt and Taft (Taft-Hartley Act), the secession of the ‘Progressive Party’ split the Republicans 1912. They returned to power in 1921-23 under Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, but were blamed for the economic crisis of 1929 and were out of office until the administration of Eisenhower, 1953-61.

A Democrat:
a) Democracy is a form of government by the people, usually through elected representatives; a state so governed; social equality democracy, the principles of the Democratic Party.

b) A Democrat is someone who believes in Democracy; Democrat – a member of the Democratic Party; Democratic pertaining to, characterized by, believing in, or practicing the principles of, political Democracy – Egalitarian – Democratic of or belonging to the Democratic Party.

The Democratic Party:
One of the two main political parties of the U.S.A. (cf. Republican Party). Its origins are traditionally linked with Jefferson’s Anti-Federalists who supported state’s rights and the interests of workers and small farmers.
The party too it’s present name and developed its organization during the presidency of 1829-37 of Jackson.
The Democrats won all presidential elections except three in the period of 1800-1860. They were split in 1854 over slavery, became associated with the ‘Slave-owning South,’ and were out of office after the Civil War.
Campaigning for lower Tariffs, they were again in power 1885-89 and 1893-97 under Cleveland, and 1913-21 under Woodrow Wilson. Under Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933-45, the Democrats were identified as the ‘Reform Party’ with the new deal. They remained in office until 1953, and regained the presidency in 1961, but lost in again in 1968.

A Statesman:
A person having a large degree of responsibility in the government of state. Such a person when characterized by wisdom and broadmindedness – Statesmanlike; The characteristics of “A WISE STATESMAN!”

 

Til Next Time…

 

Reference(s) and Acknowledgements:
Black Enterprise Magazine, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Philadelphia Weekly, Dictionary.com, and BoulwareEnterprises

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“FAIRMOUNT”
http://www.boulwareenterprises.com/FAIRMOUNT.html
http://aneastfallssonontheschuylkill.blogspot.com/2014/07/on-schuylkill-eastfalls-son-twitter.html
Remember the Massive Fire at the Philadelphia Zoo?
At 12:40 a.m. Sunday, the guards returned and found flames on the roof. Fire and zoo officials pinned the blaze on an electrical…
Pg. 63 – ‘FAIRMOUNT’ – Terror in The Park!

“The Spirit of the Soul and the Death of Morals: From Whence Comest Thou?” http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18377562-the-spirit-of-the-soul-and-the-death-of-morals
“ONE PEOPLE, ONE PLANET, and THE CHILDREN OF ONE GOD!”

“The Un-Obscure”
http://theunobscure.blogspot.com/

‘The Triplets and One’
http://theeyeofcain.blogspot.com/
http://thehebrew-israelitesandjapan.blogspot.com/
http://theessenceofinvasionandannihila.blogspot.com/
http://yahvehthefatherthelosttribesoftwelve.blogspot.com

‘BookCrossing’
http://www.bookcrossing.com/mybookshelf/GVBoulware/all
“The Spirit of The Soul and The Death of Morals”: Whence Comest thou? Paperback – Large Print, January 12, 2012
By
Mr. Gregory Vernon Boulware (Author)
http://www.amazon.com/The-Spirit-Soul-Death-Morals/dp/1468190997/ref=cm_cr_pr_product_top?ie=UTF8

A Philadelphia Story Teller: “Howl Of An Angel”: Pt. 2 ‘The Loch of Satanus’
http://philadelphiastoryeller.blogspot.com/

ASIAN VOICES
NHK website.
Sep. 4, Thu.
Hong Kong on the Brink
http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/english/tv/asianvoices/archives201408230300.html

SAPPHYRE
JASON KOMITO
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‘Black Cowboys’ https://images.search.yahoo.com/search/images;_ylt=AwrB8pFdRCdUlnoAm6ijzbkF;_ylu=X3oDMTB1N2Zma2d1BHNlYwNmcC1hdHRyaWIEc2xrA3ZpZXdtb3JlBGl0Aw–?p=black+cowboys+of+the+old+west

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‘The One Thing I Know Is…’

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Is Hong Kong on the Brink of Unrest?

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

By

Gregory V. Boulware

 “When law becomes a science and a system, it ceases to be justice. The errors, into which a blind devotion to principles of classification has led the common law, will be seen by observing how often the legislation has been obligated to come forward to restore the equity its scheme had lost.”

~Landor~

‘The Jurisprudence of Every Nation’

 “And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the Earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men – that they were fair; and of them they took as wives of all they chose.

 And the Lord said, “My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh; yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.”

 ASIAN VOICES NHK WORLD

Hong Kong on the Brink

Ichiro Korogi

(Professor, Kanda University of International Studies)

Benny Tai

(Legal Scholar / Co-organizer of Occupy Central with Love and Peace)

http://www3.nhk.or.jp/nhkworld/english/tv/asianvoices/archives201408230300.html

Hong Kong is being rocked by pro-democracy protests. Since its return to Chinese rule 17 years ago, its residents have enjoyed a high degree of autonomy. But unrest has been growing. Many say the Chinese government is trying to control the electoral process for Hong Kong’s top administrative officer. In July, some 510,000 people took part in protest demonstrations. At the end of August, the Chinese government announced that it would effectively bar pro-democracy candidates from running in elections. Activists are planning to stage massive rallies and to occupy the financial district in central Hong Kong. Meanwhile, government supporters have held counter-demonstrations. The rift in society has been deepening. What’s behind the Chinese’s government attempt to tighten control? And where is Hong Kong headed? We will consider these questions together with a Japanese specialist on China, Professor Ichiro Korogi of Kanda University of International Studies, and Associate Professor Benny Tai of the University of Hong Kong, one of the leaders of the pro-democracy movement.

George Bush, then President of the U.S., Hu Jin Tao, China’s President, and Than Shue, Myanmar’s Military leader went to visit God, Zarganar emailed a friend just after 9 o’clock; just before the crackdown on the evening of September twenty-fifth. Bush asked God, when will the US become the most powerful nation in the world?” Hu then asked when China would become the richest nation in the world, which drew the same answer from God.

Would you have the government control you for saying something they don’t approve of? Is the First Amendment protecting you and yours? Does the First Amendment apply to you and me? How does our civilized, democratic society stack up to those who do crack down on the right to speak — privately or publicly?

https://boulwareenterprises.wordpress.com/2014/07/10/zarganar/

PBS – NHK World News

WorldNews.org

‘Hong Kong On The Brink?’

 What is the meaning of?

 ‘Hong-Kong Democracy,’ ‘Democracy,’ ‘Control,’ ‘Grassroots,’ ‘Bureaucracy,’ ‘ Hierarchy,’ ‘Election,’ ‘Autonomy,’ ‘Free Choice,’ ‘Communism,’ ‘Universal Suffrage?’

Democracy:

…government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.

…a state having such a form of government:

“The United States and Canada are democracies.”

…a state of society characterized by formal equality of rights and privileges.

…political or social equality; democratic spirit.

…the common people of a community as distinguished from any privileged class; the common people with respect to their political power.

Middle French

Late Latin

Greek

Control:

…to exercise restraint or direction over; dominate; command.

…to hold in check; curb:

“To control a horse; to control one’s emotions.”

…to test or verify (a scientific experiment) by a parallel experiment or other standard of comparison.

…to eliminate or prevent the flourishing or spread of:

“To control a forest fire.”

Obsolete. to check or regulate (transactions), originally by means of a duplicate register.

noun

…the act or power of controlling; regulation; domination or command:

“Who’s in control here?”

…the situation of being under the regulation, domination, or command of another:

“The car is out of control.”

…check or restraint:

“Her anger is under control.”

A legal or official means of regulation or restraint:

“To institute wage and price controls.”

Statistics. control variable (def 1).

…a person who acts as a check; controller.

…a device for regulating and guiding a machine, as a motor or airplane.

late Middle English

Anglo-French

Grassroots:

…the common or ordinary people, especially as contrasted with the leadership or elite of a political party, social organization, etc.; the rank and file.

…the agricultural and rural areas of a country.

…the people inhabiting these areas, especially as a political, social, or economic group.

…the origin or basis of something; the basic or primary concept, rule, part, or the like.

adjective, Also, grass-roots

…of, pertaining to, or involving the common people, especially as contrasted with or separable from an elite:

“A Grassroots Movement for nuclear disarmament.”

Bureaucracy:

…government by many bureaus, administrators, and petty officials.

…the body of officials and administrators, especially of a government or government department.

…excessive multiplication of, and concentration of power in, administrative bureaus or administrators.

…administration characterized by excessive red tape and routine.

French

Hierarchy:

…any system of persons or things ranked one above another.

…government by ecclesiastical rulers.

…the power or dominion of a hierarch.

…an organized body of ecclesiastical officials in successive ranks or orders:

“The Roman Catholic hierarchy.”

…one of the three divisions of the angels, each made up of three orders, conceived as constituting a graded body.

Also called celestial hierarchy. the collective body of angels.

…government by an elite group.

Medieval Latin

Late Greek

Election:

…the selection of a person or persons for office by vote.

…a public vote upon a proposition submitted.

…the act of electing.

Theology. the choice by God of individuals, as for a particular work or for favor or salvation.

Latin

Autonomy:

…independence or freedom, as of the will or one’s actions:

“The autonomy of the individual.”

…the state or condition of having independence or freedom, or of being autonomous; self-government, or the right of self-government:

“The rebels demanded autonomy from Spain.”

…a self-governing community.

Greek

Free-Choice:

Free

…enjoying personal rights or liberty, as a person who is not in slavery:

“A land of free people.”

…pertaining to or reserved for those who enjoy personal liberty:

“They were thankful to be living on free soil.”

…existing under, characterized by, or possessing civil and political liberties that are, as a rule, constitutionally guaranteed by representative government:

“The free nations of the world.”

…enjoying political autonomy, as a people or country not under foreign rule; independent.

…exempt from external authority, interference, restriction, etc., as a person or one’s will, thought, choice, action, etc.; independent; unrestricted.

…able to do something at will; at liberty:

“Free to choose.”

…clear of obstructions or obstacles, as a road or corridor:

“The highway is now free of fallen rock.”

…in a free manner; freely; Nautical. away from the wind, so that a sailing vessel need not be close-hauled:

“running free.” verb (used with object), freed, freeing; to make free; set at liberty; release from bondage, imprisonment, or restraint; to exempt or deliver (usually followed by from); to relieve or rid (usually followed by of): “to free oneself of responsibility.”; to disengage; clear (usually followed by from or of) Verb phrases; free up,  a.to release, as from restrictions: “Congress voted to free up funds for the new highway system.” b.to disentangle: “It took an hour to free up the traffic jam.”

Idioms; for free, Informal. without charge: “The tailor mended my jacket for free.”; free and clear, Law. without any encumbrance, as a lien or mortgage:

“They owned their house free and clear.”; free and easy,  a. unrestrained; casual; informal. b. excessively or inappropriately casual; presumptuous; make free with,  a.to use as one’s own; help oneself to: “If you make free with their liquor, you won’t be invited again.” b.to treat with too much familiarity; take liberties with; set free, to release; liberate; free: “The prisoners were set free.”; with a free hand, generously; freely; openhandedly: “He entertains visitors with a free hand.”

Middle English

Old English

 Choice

noun

…an act or instance of choosing; selection:

“Her choice of a computer was made after months of research. His parents were not happy with his choice of friends.”

…the right, power, or opportunity to choose; option:

“The child had no choice about going to school.”

…the person or thing chosen or eligible to be chosen :

“This book is my choice. He is one of many choices for the award.”

…an alternative:

“There is another choice.”

…an abundance or variety from which to choose :

“A wide choice of candidates.”

…something that is preferred or preferable to others; the best part of something:

“Mare’s Nest is the choice in the sixth race.”

…a carefully selected supply:

This restaurant has a fine choice of wines.”

8.

…worthy of being chosen; excellent; superior.

…carefully selected:

“Choice words.”

…(in the grading of beef in the U.S.) rated between prime and good.

Idioms

…of choice, that is generally preferred:

“A detached house is still the home of choice.”

Middle English

Germanic

Middle English chois < Old French, derivative of choisir to perceive, choose < Germanic

Choice, alternative, option, preference all suggest the power of choosing between things. Choice implies the opportunity to choose: “a choice of evils.” Alternative suggests that one has a choice between only two possibilities. It is often used with a negative to mean that there is no second possibility: “to have no alternative.”Option emphasizes free right or privilege of choosing: “to exercise one’s option. “Preference applies to a choice based on liking or partiality: “to state a preference.” 9. …select, rare, uncommon, valuable, precious. See fine1.

noun

1.

…the act or an instance of choosing or selecting

2.

…the opportunity or power of choosing

3.

…a person or thing chosen or that may be chosen: he was a possible choice

4.

…an alternative action or possibility: what choice did I have?

5.

…a supply from which to select: a poor choice of shoes

6.

…of choice, preferred; favourite

adjective

7.

…of superior quality; excellent: choice wine

8.

…carefully chosen, appropriate: a few choice words will do the trick

9.

…vulgar or rude: choice language

mid-14c., “that which is choice,” from choice (adj.) blended with earlier chois (n.) “action of selecting” (c.1300); “power of choosing” (early 14c.), “someone or something chosen” (late 14c.), from Old French chois “one’s choice; fact of having a choice” (12c., Modern French choix), from verb choisir “to choose, distinguish, discern; recognize, perceive, see,” from a Germanic source related to Old English ceosan “to choose, taste, try;” see choose. Late Old English chis “fastidious, choosy,” from or related to ceosan, probably also contributed to the development of choice. Replaced Old English cyre “choice, free will,” from the same base, probably because the imported word was closer to choose [see note in OED].

adj.

…”worthy to be chosen, distinguished, excellent,” mid-14c., from choice (n.).

…in philosophy, a corollary of the proposition of free will-i.e., the ability voluntarily to decide to perform one of several possible acts or to avoid action entirely. An ethical choice involves ascribing qualities such as right or wrong, good or bad, better or worse to alternatives.

 Communism:

 …a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

…(often initial capital letter) a system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party.

…(initial capital letter) the principles and practices of the Communist Party.

…communalism.

French

…communism includes all of these when understood in its true meaning. Forms of libertarian communism such as situationism are strongly egoist in nature.

noun

1.

…advocacy of a classless society in which private ownership has been abolished and the means of production and subsistence belong to the community

2.

…any social, economic, or political movement or doctrine aimed at achieving such a society

3.

…(usually capital) a political movement based upon the writings of Marx that considers history in terms of class conflict and revolutionary struggle, resulting eventually in the victory of the proletariat and the establishment of a socialist order based on public ownership of the means of production See also Marxism, Marxism-Leninism, socialism

4.

…(usually capital) a social order or system of government established by a ruling Communist Party, esp in the former Soviet Union

5.

…(often capital) (mainly US) any leftist political activity or thought, esp when considered to be subversive

6.

…communal living; communalism “social system based on collective ownership,” 1843, from French communisme (c.1840) from commun (Old French comun; see common (adj.)) + -isme (see -ism).

Originally a theory of society; as name of a political system, 1850, a translation of German Kommunismus (itself from French), in Marx and Engels’ “Manifesto of the Communist Party.” Cf. communist. In some cases in early and mid-20c., a term of abuse implying anti-social criminality without regard to political theory; i.e. socialism, communism, anarchism] stands for a state of things, or a striving after it, that differs much from that which we know; & for many of us, especially those who are comfortably at home in the world as it is, they have consequently come to be the positive, comparative, & superlative, distinguished not in kind but in degree only, of the terms of abuse applicable to those who would disturb our peace.

 Communism definition

An economic and social system envisioned by the nineteenth-century German scholar Karl Marx. In theory, under communism, all means of production are owned in common, rather than by individuals (see Marxism and  Marxism-Leninism). In practice, a single authoritarian party controls both the political and economic systems. In the twentieth century, communism was associated with the economic and political systems of China and the Soviet Union and of the satellites of the Soviet Union.

(Compare  capitalism and  socialism).

 Universal Suffrage:

noun

…suffrage for all persons over a certain age, usually 18 or 21, who in other respects satisfy the requirements established by law.

Do we in America allow our government to oppress us, disrespect us, detect us, delete us, or to protect us? When we in America elect our government officials — do we control them or do they control us?

 “Let the workers do as they will…let those in the depths use force and do wrong, so that we can be justified in using force against them…behold a New World Order!”

 “If you lead correctly, orders are unnecessary and useless.”

~Confucius~

“He has showed you, O man, what’s good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your GOD?”

 “Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes. And he will turn the hearts of fathers to their children and the hearts of children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the land with a curse.”

— Malachi 4:5–6

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