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~ “Three Laws Safe” ~

By
Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.

“Do Robots Dream?”

“Do They Have Souls?”

“Sorry…we cannot sell or pump gas at this time.” “The computers are down”, “we can’t get anything to work.” “Can you come back later?”

I can remember the words of Our Brother, ‘Marvin Gaye,’ “What’s Going On?” “Thing’s Ain’t What They Used To Be…Mercy, Mercy Me!”

Many of us have PC’s in our homes today. And there are many others who feel they are, and believe they are a step ahead while utilizing home-robots like “Alexa” or IBM’S “Watson” and a myriad of cloned devices that clean, monitor, and coordinate their daily lives or lifestyles.

Where’s your cell phone?

Do you remember the scene in the movie “Star Wars,” where the bar-tender shouts at ‘Luke Skywalker’ to get his droids out of his establishment?
That scene is a result of human prejudices against machines or robot-kind. Detroit, Michigan’s automobile industry and workforce is all but totally manned by robots (or robotics). Robots are doing major operations on humans and animals alike. Robots are preparing foods, packing and shipping items, driving cars, and diagnosing human ailments and diseases. Robots are answering telephones and redirecting calls. Robots are calling you on your telephones, reminding you of past due bills, appointments, prescription pick-ups, and making attempts at selling you goods and other services. Robots are building bridges, buildings, and homes. Robots are doing just about anything and everything a human or animal can and has been doing. Ask yourself…how many jobs have been lost and are being lost to robots?

“Many companies are using sentiment analysis to gauge the mood(s) on social networks and/or the web…but getting insight takes new tactics and skills,” said Doug Henschen of ‘Techweb.’

LAW I:
“A ‘Robot’ may not injure a ‘Human Being’ or, through inaction, allow a Human Being to come to harm.”

LAW II:
“A ‘Robot’ must obey orders given it by ‘Human Beings’ except where such orders would conflict with the first law.”

LAW III:
“A ‘Robot’ must protect its’ own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first or second law.”

Technology is defined as the knowledge of tools and crafts. It is a broad view or concept that deals with human inventions, intervention, and the ability to adapt and control of a particular environment. The clock has a form of control over the way we react to time, i.e., cause and effect. Technology can also be construed as material objects in use by humans such as machines and devices that involve systems, techniques, and/or methods of organization. Do humans control computers or do computers control humans? Why is the question germane to this topic? View my article: “Device Machine Dependent!” (It has been removed from the EzineMagazine posting site)

But…where is the law in preventing a robot from taking a human’s job; replacing human kind?

Robotics are everywhere these days…they are in the operating room, the automobile industry, the restaurants, the hotels, communications – pick up a telephone and see if you are speaking with a human or robot…they control the flow of Internet operations, traffic, trains, and many forms of transportation, i.e., air travel…flights coming and going; albeit, human flight engineers are still needed as supervisional controllers…

If you haven’t been able to read the article which was originally posted to the magazine site, It is re-posted to this posting for your edification…as well as it not disappearing from existence altogether:

“Device Machine Dependent”

“Sorry…we cannot sell or pump gas at this time.” “The computers are down”, “we can’t get anything to work.” “Can you come back later?”

Haven’t we all, at one time or another, experienced waiting in line at retail, wholesale, and/or any given checkout counter where everything stops when the computers fail? Didn’t you wish the operators of these devices could use a (for those who can remember) portable calculator, abacus, or something that will get the line moving and allow you to leave with your purchase? How about using a plain ole pencil and paper?

“Sorry…We can’t write you a receipt, the computer knows all of the prices and keeps inventory as well as who I am, the date, time, transaction number, my station number, and the store location number.” We are at the mercy and dependence of computers and machines that do all and most of what we used to do, as well as the things that we don’t do.

While perusing through some tech articles, mags, and reports of several major tech info media, I came across an advertisement that I could not ignore. It depicted a giant or larger than man-sized robot. This robot was seated like the statue of “The Thinking Man”; one of Auguste Rodin’s most famous sculptures, the “Thinker Statue.” The Thinker was part of a commission by the Museum of Decorative Arts in Paris to sculpt a monumental door based on The Divine Comedy of Dante (Dante’s Inferno). The image of the robot was an advertisement for anti-virus software protection. Remember the “Good Book?” Remember the first book of “Moses”, (the “King James Version”) called “GENESIS”, chp.1, para.26; “and GOD said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.”

The image of the robot was man-like. Albeit, the image appeared to personify a particular type of person or a particular race of human being; should it have? The robot had blue eyes; a pointed elongated nose, a broad and deep eye-socketed brow, and the physical characteristics of a long and lean structure. The similarities were unmistakably that of the European Caucasian male. I wondered why. The word power entered my mind; “Let us make things in our image, after our likeness.”

ESET NOD32 Antivirus’ advertisement reminded me of a story written by Isaac Asimov. The anti-virus caption stated “we’ve been told only the most knowledgeable IT managers have heard of us”. Mr. Asomov’s story, “I ROBOT”, is probably recently known by the 2004, movie by 20th Century Fox. The story was also depicted in the 1960’s TV series “The Twilight Zone”, created and narrated by Mr. Rod Serling. Albeit, the TV show starred several “persons of color” This practice is not out of the norm for many moviemakers. Some believe that people of color either weren’t thought of or the existence is or will be non-existent. Why is that? The perceived non-contribution to science and the world economy by people of color is questionable as well. i.e., the movie “Logan’s’ Run.”

Many robot images in science fiction stories and movies are depicted with expressionless, non-human-like features; even though many of them are crafted with eyes and mouths. It could be assumed the representation of eyes, ears, and mouths are a comfort-zone interface designed to allow human beings the benefit of comradery with these service-provider machines. But why is it

we characterize or model the seemingly most intelligent-looking centralized robot appear to be copied after the image of one particular race of people? Is it the intention to “create in the image of its creator?” Was it not the Asian Scientists that created, produced, and perfected the first humanoid robot? Was it not recorded as such? Do you ever wonder, which came first, the chicken or the egg?

What would you do or how have you reacted when you realized that you’d left your cell-phone at home; or worse, you’ve lost it? How about the crashing of your computer? Your TV doesn’t work because the computer component of something or other on its’ motherboard went capluwie? Oh no! The cable-TV system is down! The computerized micro-wave stopped working, the computerized washing machine and dryer stopped working, the computerized automobile stopped working, the computerized radio isn’t working and you can’t get the news, the MAC machine doesn’t work and you can’t access your funds for cash purposes and/or transactions, the telephone doesn’t work, the lights and heat stopped working, and what ever else relies on computer controlled operations or power?

Have you ever seen “Colossus,The Forbin Project?” It’s a movie where a master computer and its on-line rival compute and eventually control the future and demise of mankind. And heaven-forbid that we lose the Internet! What would you do? How do we function? Do we go back to the old fashioned, simpler way of life? Are we willing to barter or trade? Are we willing to re-learn to use paper and pen, the abacus (how many of us know how to use it?), and/or are we ready willing and able to utilize our financial reports by way of the hand-written ledger again?

The next time that you’re standing in line awaiting purchase checkout; with all of the devices, instruments, and all of the technological tools at our disposure, remember, we will still face the inevitable confrontation of “Sorry…we cannot sell or pump gas at this time.” “The computers are down, we can’t get anything to work.” “Can you come back later?”

>

Now, what about the television system(s), streaming, the rating process? How many shows have been broadcast regarding killer robots or robotics, and the movies…how many times have you gone out to view movies about robots and/or androids, i.e., “Alien,” “I Robot,” “Colossus,The Forbin Project,” and the latest movie(s) about renegade machines run amok, “The Drone,” “The Transformers,” or “Mr. Robot?”

They are taking away the pleasure and ability to drive our cars…the automobile industry seems to love that – remedy!?

Is it possible that robots can cure the sexual desires of the sexual predators who walk amongst us? Can they cure the common cold…are robots delivering our babies in the delivery room…would you be comfortable with a robot giving you a physical; Looking down you throat or up your anus during a physical exam? They have been pretty popular among those men who desire the companionship of women, who for whatever reason can’t or simply do not want or desire the difficulties or challenges of the human woman…would they replace the woman as they appear to be replacing the man in his ever changing attitude(s) toward utter and complete power.

The truth is…there is nothing that we can do about this evolution, this new life form, this cure-all for Mankind. The robot has without a doubt, proven to be a most useful tool and asset to technology as it is…will there ever come a day when we would not have to do a damned thing for ourselves…would we loose the desire (or possibly, the ability) to do anything for ourselves in this fast approaching future; a future that is apparently NOW?

You have the ability to judge for yourself…for now.

 

…Til Next Time.

“G”

 

Posting List Links and Locations to Articles by Boulware
‘The Platforms of BoulwareEnterprises/Publications’
~ ‘The E-Store for Books by Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.’ ~
http://boulwareenterprises.com/-_A_Portentous_Epoch_~.html
http://thebookmarketingnetwork.com/profiles/blogs/the-e-store-for-books-by-boulware
New BCID: 823-13940945
http://www.bookcrossing.com/journal/13940945
New BCID: 823-13940945 – Hallow

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References/Acknowledgments:

Marvin Gaye:
https://search.yahoo.com/search?ei=UTF-8&fr=crmas&p=marvin+gaye

Isaac Asimov:
Aka, “Isaak Judah Ozimov” of Petrovichi
Shtetl, near Smolensk, Russia…
https://search.yahoo.com/search?ei=UTF-8&fr=crmas&p=Isaac+Asimov

“AI” Of Human-Kind
http://ezinearticles.com/?AI-Of-Human-Kind&id=9927310

“The Platform On The Cloud”
http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Platform-On-The-Cloud&id=5458157

“Internet SOS – Save Our Systems”
http://ezinearticles.com/?Internet-SOS—Save-Our-Systems&id=4481594

“IT and BI”
http://ezinearticles.com/?IT-and-BI&id=714057

“Device Machine Dependent”
http://devicemachinedependent.blogspot.com/
(Previously posted to EzineArticles – for some reason, it has been removed, (5.19.8))
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Gregory_V._Boulware
https://search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=A0geK.ZmFlNclTsA6yNXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTFhNTRqcWc4BGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDQjY4ODFfMQRzZWMDcGFnaW5hdGlvbg–?p=device+machine+dependent&pz=10&ei=UTF-8&fr=crmas&bct=0&b=1&pz=10&bct=0&xargs=0
Saturday, November 7, 2009
“Device Machine Dependent”
By
Gregory V. Boulware, Esq.

“We the Matrix”
https://ezinearticles.com/?We-the-Matrix&id=3251674
https://boulwareenterprises.wordpress.com/we-the-matrix/

Search Results for “Device Machine Dependent”
http://hbcu.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?processSearch=1&keywords=Device+Machine+Dependent&go=Search

~ “Device Machine Dependent” ~
http://hbcu.com/content/288853/device-machine-dependent
“Sorry…we cannot sell or pump gas at this time.” “The computers are down”, “we can’t get anything to work.” “Can you come back later?” Haven’t we all, at one time or another, experienced waiting in line at ret…
Page Last Updated: 01/23/2016

~ “AI”…of Human-kind ~
http://hbcu.com/content/334105/ai-of-human-kind
~ “AI”…of Human-kind ~ By Gregory V. Boulware, Esq. http://ezinearticles.com/?AI-Of-Human-Kind&id=9927310 “Which Came First, The Chicken Or The Egg?” Several years ago, you may recall a publication …
Page Last Updated: 04/26/2018

~ ‘Internet SOS’ – “Save Our Systems” ~
http://hbcu.com/content/326528/internet-sos-save-our-systems
‘Internet SOS’ – “Save Our Systems” By Gregory V. Boulware, Esq. http://ezinearticles.com/?Internet-SOS—Save-Our-Systems&id=4481594 https://www.amazon.com/Gregory-V.-Boulware/e/B00OI16PDI/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0 June…
Page Last Updated: 08/02/2017

“Craplets and Software Junk”
http://hbcu.com/content/219630/craplets-and-software-junk
“Craplets and Software Junk” By Gregory V. Boulware 5.8.11 A poem danced around for a while in my mind…It said something about a tree. Is there nothing as lovely as a tree? While pondering and reminiscing my co…
Page Last Updated: 09/14/2011

‘Amazon’
“The One Thing I Know is…How To Understand Information Technology?”
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1502581159/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_taft_p1_i3
“Anthology of An Essayist” – Volume II: Total Comprehensive Compositions: Total Comprehensive Compositions (Volume 2)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1470114399/ref=dbs_a_def_rwt_hsch_vapi_taft_p1_i4
https://www.amazon.com/Gregory-V.-Boulware/e/B00OI16PDI/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0%20

“Robot Movies”
https://video.search.yahoo.com/search/video;_ylt=AwrEzed7IlNcFO0AVS1XNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTEyY2pjZm9hBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDQjY4ODFfMQRzZWMDc2M-?p=robot+movies+of+2019&fr=crmas

Tags:

#Asimov #IRobot #AI #BoulwareBooks #MarvinGaye #Boulware #SciFi #Robotics #Employment #GhostInTheMachine #Soul #MachineLearning #BI #IT #Immigrants #Immigration #Disenfranchised #IAm #IAmHebrew #Dependency #Device #Freedom #Galaxy #Human #Machine #Matrix #Service #Technology #Universe #Universal #TheThreeLaws #Machines #ArtificialIntelligence #HumanKind #PC #AI #IoT #WhatsGoingOn #ThingsAintWhatTheyUsedToBe #ModernLife #BlackAmerica #BlackInAmerica #HBCU #CollegeLife #Universities #HigherLearning

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Techie Speak Universal! 

#Teaching #Education #Learning #Advancement #Career #Algorithm #Syntax #BoulwareBooks 

“Just A Few Techie Definitions” 

By 
Gregory V. Boulware, Esq. 
https://independent.academia.edu/GregoryVBoulware 
“HBCU” 
http://hbcu.com/content/337999/just-a-few-techie-definitions 
“Amazon” 
http://www.amazon.com/Gregory-V.-Boulware/e/B00OI16PDI/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0 

“WordPress”
https://boulwareenterprises.wordpress.com/2018/11/19/just-a-few-techie-definitions/

 

Ya’ateeh, Y’Ho, Shalom Alaikum, As Salaam Alaikum, Hotep, Hola, Konichiwa, Privyet, Hallo, Ni Hao, Anyoung Haseyo, and Hello To You, One and All – Especially Students! 

 

Someone asked me, awhile back, “What’s an Algorithm?”

As I began to explain, I remembered the information I’d entered into one of my published books, “A Few Tech Definitions From A to Z…” I thought I might help as many as I can to understand what all those “techie speak” words, abbreviations, and symbols imply. To the student(s) who may have a leg up on the “lay individuals,” this article as well as “The Book – The One Thing I Know Is” could well be a highly valuable commodity to have on one’s desk as well as in their learning library at home, school, or work. 

Enjoy this posting as it relates to a plethora of data and “Techie Speak Lingo!” 

This author will offer a series of data-strings for all of you who wish to broaden your technical terminology (and a bit of business) as well as keeping you abreast as to what all those strange and crazy words mean to you, me, and quite a few others…“Happy Studying!” 

>

From the Book “The One Thing I Know Is…” 
‘The One Thing I Know Is…How To Understand Information Technology!’ 
Page 137, From A to Z 
“Amazon” 
http://www.amazon.com/Gregory-V.-Boulware/e/B00OI16PDI/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0 

 

ActiveX: 

A loosely defined set of technologies developed by Microsoft. ActiveX is an outgrowth of two other Microsoft technologies called OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) and COM (Component Object Model). As a moniker, ActiveX can be very confusing because it applies to a whole set of COM-based technologies. Most people, however, think only of ActiveX controls, which represent a specific way of implementing ActiveX technologies.

Ad Hoc: 

Description of Research Group:
An ad hoc network is an autonomous system of routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links–the union of which form an arbitrary graph. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily; thus, the network’s wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet operating as a hybrid fixed/ad hoc network.

This group is concerned with the study of Ad hoc Network Systems (ANS). Ad hoc networks are complex systems, with cross-layer protocol dynamics and interactions that are not present in wired systems, most prominently between the physical, link and network (IP) layers. The IETF community and the wider research community could benefit from research into the behavior of ad hoc networks that would enable advanced routing protocol development. This research group will endeavor to develop sufficient understanding in topic areas of interest to enable the desired protocol specification work.

ADJUDICATION: 

Administrative Law; to resolve legally, rule-making, investigation and enforcement, administrative process. The administration of law by administrative agencies.
Adjudication/Subrogation
Adjudication 
ad·ju·di·ca·tion /??d?ud?’ke???n/ Show Spelled Pronunciation [uh-joo-di-key-shuhn] Show IPA –noun 1. an act of adjudicating. 2. Law. a. the act of a court in making an order, judgment, or decree. b. a judicial decision or sentence. c. a court decree in bankruptcy. > ad·ju·di·cate (?-joo’di-kat’) v. ad·ju·di·cat·ed, ad·ju·di·cat·ing, ad·ju·di·cates v. tr. To hear and settle (a case) by judicial procedure.

To study and settle (a dispute or conflict): The principal adjudicated our quarrel. v. intr. To act as a judge. [Latin adiudicare, adiudicat-, to award to (judicially): ad-, ad- + iudicare, to judge (from iudex, judge; see judge).] ad·ju’di·ca’tion n., ad·ju’di·ca’tive adj., ad·ju’di·ca’tor n. > Subrogation sub·ro·gate /’s?br??ge?t/ Show Spelled Pronunciation [suhb-ruh-geyt] Show IPA –verb (used with object), -gat·ed, -gat·ing. 1. to put into the place of another; substitute for another. 2. Civil Law. to substitute (one person) for another with reference to a claim or right.
Use Subrogation in a Sentence See images of Subrogation Search Subrogation on the Web
——————————————————————————-
Origin: 1400–50; 1540–50 for def. 1; late ME (ptp.) < L subrogatus (ptp. of subrogare to nominate (someone) as a substitute), equiv. to sub- sub- + roga(re) to request + -tus ptp. suffix Related forms: sub·ro·ga·tion, noun > Main Entry: sub·ro·ga·tion Pronunciation: “s&-brO-‘gA-sh&n Function: noun 1: an equitable doctrine holding that when a third party pays a creditor or obligee the third party succeeds to the creditor’s rights against the debtor or obligor; also: a doctrine holding that when an insurance company pays an insured’s claim of loss due to another’s tort the insurer succeeds to the insured’s rights (as the right to sue for damages) against the tortfeasor called also equitable subrogation
2: an act or instance of subrogating subrogation the right to recover for money —J. M. Landers et al.>
NOTE: Subrogation can take place either by operation of law or by contractual agreement.
Adjudication/Subrogation

ADO: 

Short for ActiveX Data Objects, Microsoft’s newest high-level interface for data objects. ADO is designed to eventually replace Data Access Objects (DAO) and Remote Data Objects (RDO). Unlike RDO and DAO, which are designed only for accessing relational databases, ADO is more general and can be used to access all sorts of different types of data, including web pages, spreadsheets, and other types of documents.
Together with OLE DB and ODBC, ADO is one of the main components of Microsoft’s Universal Data Access (UDA) specification, which is designed to provide a consistent way of accessing data regardless of how the data are structured.

Aggregate Functions:

MIN returns the smallest value in a given column MAX returns the largest value in a given column SUM returns the sum of the numeric values in a given column AVG returns the average value of a given column COUNT returns the total number of values in a given column COUNT(*) returns the number of rows in a table
Aggregate functions are used to compute against a “returned column of numeric data” from your SELECT statement. They basically summarize the results of a particular column of selected data. We are covering these here since they are required by the next topic, “GROUP BY”. Although they are required for the “GROUP BY” clause, these functions can be used without the “GROUP BY” clause. For example:
SELECT AVG(salary)
FROM employee;
This statement will return a single result which contains the average value of everything returned in the salary column from the employee table.
Another example:
SELECT AVG(salary)
FROM employee;
WHERE title = ‘Programmer’;
This statement will return the average salary for all employees whose title is equal to ‘Programmer’

Example: 

SELECT Count (*)
FROM employees;
This particular statement is slightly different from the other aggregate functions since there isn’t a column supplied to the count function. This statement will return the number of rows in the employees table.
Use these tables for the exercises items_ordered customers
Review Exercises
1. Select the maximum price of any item ordered in the items_ordered table. Hint: Select the maximum price only.> 2. Select the average price of all of the items ordered that were purchased in the month of Dec. 3. What are the total number of rows in the items_ordered table? 4. For all of the tents that were ordered in the items_ordered table, what is the price of the lowest tent? Hint: Your query should return the price only.

Answers to these Exercises
Enter SQL Statement here:
Submit Query

AGP-Advanced Graphic Port: 

Short for Accelerated Graphics Port, an interface specification developed by Intel Corporation. AGP is based on PCI, but is designed especially for the throughput demands of 3-D graphics. Rather than using the PCI bus for graphics data, AGP introduces a dedicated point-to-point channel so that the graphics controller can directly access main memory. The AGP channel is 32 bits wide and runs at 66 MHz. This translates into a total bandwidth of 266 MBps; as opposed to the PCI bandwidth of 133 MBps. AGP also supports two optional faster modes, with throughputs of 533 MBps and 1.07 GBps. In addition, AGP allows 3-D textures to be stored in main memory rather than video memory.

PCI: 

Peripheral Component Inter-Connect (functionality card). AGP has a couple important system requirements:

• The chipset must support AGP.

• The motherboard must be equipped with an AGP bus slot or must have an integrated AGP graphics system.

• The operating system must be the OSR 2.1 version of Windows 95, Windows 98 or Windows NT 4.0. And currently, many professional Macintoshes support AGP. AGP-enabled computers and graphics accelerators hit the market in August, 1997. However, there are several different levels of AGP compliance.

The following features are considered optional:

• Texturing: Also called Direct Memory Execute mode, allows textures to be stored in main memory.

• Throughput: Various levels of throughput are offered: 1X is 266 MBps, 2X is 533 MBps; and 4X provides 1.07 GBps.

• Sideband Addressing: Speeds up data transfers by sending command instructions in a separate, parallel channel.

• Pipelining: Enables the graphics card to send several instructions together instead of sending one at a time.

Algorithm:

A line of attack; Information (The Flow Chart). 
(al´g&-rith-&m) (n.) A formula or set of steps for solving a particular problem. To be an algorithm, a set of rules must be unambiguous and have a clear stopping point. Algorithms can be expressed in any language, from natural languages like English or French to programming languages like FORTRAN.

We use algorithms every day. For example, a recipe for baking a cake is an algorithm. Most programs, with the exception of some artificial intelligence (AI) applications, consist of algorithms. Inventing elegant algorithms — algorithms that are simple and require the fewest steps possible -is one of the principal challenges in programming.

Genetic algorithms archive Repository for information related to research in genetic algorithms. Here you can find a calendar of events, back issues of the archive, links to related research sites, newsgroups, and source code.

A study on what faces people find the most attractive. 

This was a study done to determine what types of faces are the most attractive. This shows how a genetic algorithm can be applied to a study of hereditary over many generations. Algorithms for common programming problems…

Provides algorithms for common programming problems. It also provides pointers on how to implement those algorithms in various different languages. Demonstration of genetic algorithm problem.

This site illustrates the solution for the travelling salesman problem– what is the best, most efficient way for a travelling sales man to travel through all the states. The solutions were found by running a genetic algorithm. The problem is a classic question that is dealt with using algorithms.

Analog: (adj.)

Also spelled analogue, describes a device or system that represents changing values as continuously variable physical quantities. A typical analog device is a clock in which the hands move continuously around the face. Such a clock is capable of indicating every possible time of day. In contrast, a digital clock is capable of representing only a finite number of times (every tenth of a second, for example). In general, humans experience the world analogically. Vision, for example, is an analog experience because we perceive infinitely smooth gradations of shapes and colors. When used in reference to data storage and transmission, analog format is that in which information is transmitted by modulating a continuous transmission signal, such as amplifying a signal’s strength or varying its frequency to add or take away data. For example, telephones take sound vibrations and turn them into electrical vibrations of the same shape before they are transmitted over traditional telephone lines. Radio wave transmissions work in the same way. Computers, which handle data in digital form, require modems to turn signals from digital to analog before transmitting those signals over communication lines such as telephone lines that carry only analog signals. The signals are turned back into digital form (demodulated) at the receiving end so that the computer can process the data in its digital format.

Contrast with digital. 

ANSI: 

Acronym for the American National Standards Institute. Founded in 1918, ANSI is a voluntary organization composed of over 1,300 members (including all the large computer companies) that creates standards for the computer industry. For example, ANSI C is a version of the C language that has been approved by the ANSI committee. To a large degree, all ANSI C Compilers, regardless of which company produces them, should behave similarly.

In addition to programming languages, ANSI sets standards for a wide range of technical areas, from electrical specifications to communications protocols. For example, FDDI, the main set of protocols for sending data over fiber optic cables, is an ANSI standard.

National Committee for Information Technology Standards (NCITS) Contains information on the efforts and involvements of NCITS in the area of market-driven, voluntary consensus standards for multimedia, interconnection among computing devices, storage media, databases, security, and programming languages.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Home Page Contains news, events, links to standards databases, and education and training links. Standardization – ANSI

Explains why there is a need for ANSI and standardization.

API:

Abbreviation of Application Program Interface, a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks. A programmer puts the blocks together. 

Most operating environments, such as MS-Windows, provide an API so that programmers can write applications consistent with the operating environment. Although APIs are designed for programmers, they are ultimately good for users because they guarantee that all programs using a common API will have similar interfaces. This makes it easier for users to learn new programs. DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI)

This is a programmer’s reference copy of the DOS Protected Mode Interface, a protected mode API specification for DOS extended applications. Microsoft Internet Server API (ISAPI) information page Provides a brief description of Microsoft’s Internet Server API (ISAPI), along with a link to information on CGI.

APM:

Short for Advanced Power Management, an API developed by Intel and Microsoft that allows developers to include power management in BIOSes. APM defines a layer between the hardware and the operating system that effectively shields the programmer from hardware details.

Applet:

An applet is a small program designed to run within another application. Applets are useful on the Web because, once they are downloaded; they can be executed quickly within the user’s browser. More than one applet can exist in a single document, and they can communicate with one another while they work. Java is one of the major languages used for creating Web-based applets.

Application: 

A program or group of programs designed for end users. Software can be divided into two general classes: systems software and applications software. Systems software consists of low level programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level. This includes operating systems, compilers, and utilities for managing computer resources.
In contrast, applications software (also called end-user programs) includes database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Figuratively speaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities.

Argument: 

In programming, a value that you pass to a routine. For example, if SQRT is a routine that returns the square root of a value, then SQRT(25) would return the value 5. The value 25 is the argument.

Argument is often used synonymously with parameter, although parameter can also mean any value that can be changed. In addition, some programming languages make a distinction between arguments, which are passed in only one direction, and parameters, which can be passed back and forth, but this distinction is by no means universal.

An argument can also be an option to a command, in which case it is often called a command-line argument.

Artificial Intelligence: (AI)

The branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Artificial intelligence includes
• games playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers

• expert systems: programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)

• natural language: programming computers to understand natural human languages

• neural networks: Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains

• robotics: programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli

Currently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, are able to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. 

In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assembly plants, but they are capable only of very limited tasks. Robots have great difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, and they still move and handle objects clumsily.

Natural-language processing offers the greatest potential rewards because it would allow people to interact with computers without needing any specialized knowledge. You could simply walk up to a computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers to understand natural languages has proved to be more difficult than originally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems that translate from one human language to another are in existence, but they are not nearly as good as human translators. There are also voice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds into written words, but they do not understand what they are writing; they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited — you must speak slowly and distinctly.

In the early 1980’s, expert systems were believed to represent the future of (AI) artificial intelligence and of computers in general. To date, however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expert systems help human experts in such fields as medicine and engineering, but they are very expensive to produce and are helpful only in special situations.

Today, the hottest area of (AI) artificial intelligence is neural networks, which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural-language processing.

There are several programming languages that are known as AI languages because they are used almost exclusively for AI applications. The two most common are LISP and Prolog.

Numara Software:

Neural Network Help Desk Software – Offers Track-It! “Help Desk Software” for advanced problem resolution, knowledge management, and employee/customer self-help via the Web.

Free demo…

KnowledgeStorm: 

(AI) Artificial Intelligence Information Resource – Business technology search site offering software, service, re-seller and hardware information on thousands of IT solutions and Intelligent software products and suppliers.

Searchable directory of over 700 product abstracts for AI and intelligent software products. MIT Artificial Intelligence Projects
The following are links to web sites for many of the research groups and research projects that CSAIL members are involved in.

American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Provides links to AAAI conferences, symposia, publications, workshops, resources, and organization information. MIT’s AI Lab home page 

This site features a number of artificial intelligence resources, including several online publications.

SRI International Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC) page Home page for SRI’s International’s Artificial Intelligence Center (AIC), one of the world’s major centers of research in artificial intelligence. Here you can find information on their research programs, staff, and publications.

The Center for Neural Computing Applications (CNCA) The CNCA is a University research group dedicated to developing neural computing and SMART software solutions to real world problems. The site provides project details, papers, extensive related links pages, and up-to-date information in the AI/neural computing world. The Outsider’s Guide to AI Contains AI history, information on the LISP language, natural language processing, hardware, expert systems, human behavior, message filtering, robotics, and an AI timeline. 

AS (AS/400): 

Acronym for Autonomous System 
An Autonomous System (AS) is a group of networks under mutual administration that share the same routing methodology. An AS uses an internal gateway protocol and common metrics to route packets within the AS and uses an external gateway protocol to route packets to other Autonomous Systems.

ASCII: 

Acronym for the American Standard Code of Information Interchange.

Pronounced ask-ee, ASCII is a code for representing English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127? For example, the ASCII code for uppercase M is 77.

Most computers use ASCII codes to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer to another.

Text files stored in ASCII format are sometimes called ASII files. Text editors and word processors are usually capable of storing data in ASCII format, although ASCII format is not always the default storage format. Most data files, particularly if they contain numeric data, are not stored on ASCII format. Executable programs are never stored in ASCII format.

The standard ASCII character set uses just 7 bits for each character. There are several larger character sets that use 8 bits, which gives them 128 additional characters. The extra characters are used to represent non-English characters, graphics symbols, and mathematical symbols. 

Several companies and organizations have proposed extensions for these 128 characters. The DOS operating system uses a “Superset” of ASCII called extended ASCII or high ASCII. A more universal standard is the ISO Latin 1 set of characters, which is used by many operating systems, as well as Web browsers.

Another set of codes that is used on large IBM computers is EBCDIC.

ASIC: 

Pronounced ay-sik, and short for Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, a chip designed for a particular application (as opposed to the integrated circuits that control functions such as RAM in a PC). ASIC’s are built by connecting existing circuit building blocks in new ways. Since the building blocks already exist in a library, it is much easier to produce a new ASIC than to design a new chip from scratch.

ASIC’s are commonly used in automotive computers to control the functions of the vehicle and in PDAs.

ASM: 

Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is a feature in Oracle Database 10g that provides the database administrator with a simple storage management interface that is consistent across all server and storage platforms. As a vertically integrated file system and volume manager, purpose-built for Oracle database files, ASM provides the performance of async I/O with the easy management of a file system. ASM provides capability that saves the DBA’s time and provides flexibility to manage a dynamic database environment with increased efficiency.

ATA: 

Short for Advanced Technology Attachment, a disk drive implementation that integrates the controller on the disk drive itself. There are several versions of ATA, all developed by the Small Form Factor (SFF) Committee: 

ATA: Known also as IDE, supports one or two hard drives, a 16-bit interface and PIO modes 0, 1 and 2.

ATA-2: Supports faster PIO modes (3 and 4) and multiword DMA modes (1 and 2). Also supports logical block addressing (LBA) and block transfers. ATA-2 is marketed as Fast ATA and Enhanced IDE (EIDE).

ATA-3: Minor revision to ATA-2. 

Ultra-ATA: Also called Ultra-DMA, ATA-33, and DMA-33, supports multiword DMA mode 3 running at 33 MBps.

ATA/66: A version of ATA proposed by Quantum Corporation, and supported by Intel, that doubles ATA’s throughput to 66 MBps.

ATA/100: An updated version of ATA/66 that increases data transfer rates to 100 MBps. ATA also is called Parallel ATA. Contrast with Serial ATA.

The Next Article Submission will pick up with the “B” Section…

 

“Backplane!” 

…Til Next Time. 

Happy Learning! 

~ “SANKOFA” the “MAAFA” ~ 

 

Peace and Love, 

“G” 
“Twitter”
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Posting List Links and Locations to Articles by Boulware 
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http://thebookmarketingnetwork.com/profiles/blogs/the-e-store-for-books-by-boulware
New BCID: 823-13940945
http://www.bookcrossing.com/journal/13940945
New BCID: 823-13940945 – Hallow

 

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